“Why do so few Jews take issue with the theory of evolution, while creationism is common among Christians?”
I think Christians tended to think that religion and science were part of the same universe of discourse. So they assumed that the Bible was telling us scientific stuff, as well as moral and spiritual stuff. Whereas Jews don’t read the Bible that way.
I mean, look how much time the Bible spends in describing creation: 34 verses. It spends 600 verses describing how the Israelites constructed the Tabernacle. Genesis 1 is not remotely thinking about being science. It’s clear that the first chapter of the Bible is teaching us about the goodness of the world, not about the cosmo-genesis of the world.
Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, as quoted in:Jonathan Sacks on Richard Dawkins: “New atheists lack a sense of humor”, Salon.com, 27 September, 2014.